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Former Prime Minister of India as Indura Gandhi

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Indira Gandhi was the first female Prime Minister of India. Political thinkers, even today consider Gandhi as the most controversial prime minister of the nation. I was so interested and inclined to the national policy that had decided to stay with the father's prime minister in New Delhi. Her husband, Feroze Gandhi stayed back in Allahabad. It was during his period in office, India was involved in a "state of emergency." In order to suppress the growing movement for an independent state called "Khalistan" Gandhi ordered the army to launch a manhunt inside the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The event was known as "Operation Blue Star". He was accused of unfair treatment to Sikhs and anger intensified so that the October 31, 1984, which was shot by two of his bodyguards Sikhs. Indira Gandhi was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize (for 1983-84).


Famous as former Prime Minister of India
Date of Birth   November 19, 1917
Born in Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh
He died on October 31, 1984
Nationality :  India
Works and achievements First woman Prime Minister of India, the Lenin Peace Prize (for 1983-1984)




Childhood
Indira Gandhi was born into an aristocratic family of Nehru on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a lawyer and leader of the Indian nationalist movement. Indira's mother Kamala was a religious woman. It was reported that there was a huge difference between the lifestyle of Jawaharlal Nehru and his wife Kamala. The Nehru, traditions, followed by a Western lifestyle, and sophisticated. This is one reason why his mother had quasi-isolated from the values ​​of the Nehru.

Indira's grandfather, Motilal Nehru was a renowned lawyer of that period. He was also a prominent member of the India National Congress Party. Because of this, many leaders and party activists pointed to visit the "House of Nehru." Mahatma Gandhi was one of them. Therefore, since childhood, Indira Gandhi, had developed an interest in the affairs of the country's politics. Indira Gandhi, prominent schools attended, including Santiniketan, Badminton School and Oxford, but she showed great aptitude for academics, and was detained from obtaining a degree. In 1936, her mother, Kamala Nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle. She was eighteen at the time. Jawaharlal Nehru was languishing in jails in India that time.

Marriage and politics
After returning from Oxford University, he began participating enthusiastically in the national movement Indira. In 1941, Indira Gandhi married Feroze, journalist and key member of the Youth Congress. Although Nehru had raised a strong objection to the marriage of his daughter to a Parsi, but could not prevent Indira. In 1944, Indira gave birth to Rajiv Gandhi, followed two years later by Sanjay Gandhi. Feroze later became editor of a newspaper in the Indian National Congress Party in Allahabad. Indira and Feroze were resolved happily exists in Allahabad, but things got worse after Indira decided to shift to Delhi with his father. He moved to New Delhi, with two children, while Feroze Gandhi was left behind

During the parliamentary elections of 1951-52, Feroze Gandhi was asked to contest the election of Rae Bareli. Eventually won the election and moved to Delhi, but chose to live in a separate house. Feroze, eventually gained popularity and soon became a major face corruption. Its popularity grew, especially after he exposed a financial scandal in the cabinet headed by Nehru. It was reported that the then Finance Minister TT Krishnamachari, aid near Nehru, was involved in the scandal that would benefit from major insurance companies. . On September 8, 1960, Feroze died after a major cardiac arrest.

Indira as Congress President
Indira Gandhi was a dedicated supporter of the Congress Party and became one of the political advisers of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1959 he was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress Party. After Jawaharlal Nehru, died on May 27, 1964, Indira Gandhi, presented to the elections and finally chosen. She was appointed as the Information and Broadcasting Minister in the Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri.

At that time, people in southern parts of India were protesting in Hindi being considered as the national language. With each day, the situation is worsening in the region. To appease the anger of community leaders, Indira Gandhi visited Madras (now Chennai). Indira Gandhi, had a very good handling of the media and are used as an imaging instrument. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indira Gandhi, went on a vacation trip to Srinagar. Despite repeated warnings by Pakistani security forces that insurgents had come very close to the hotel he was staying, Gandhi refused to budge. The incident brought national attention to its large and international media.

As Prime Minister
After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, the January 11, 1966, in Tashkent, the party said a major problem, since some of the main leaders of the Congress Party want to contest. Unable to reach consensus, the high command, led by K Kamaraj Indira took as his rival. Senior Congress leader Morarji Desai opposition Indira coveted bid for the throne and decided to contest against him. During voting, Desai was only 169 votes, compared with 355 of Indira votes. The reason behind the virtual Indira selection for the position was the belief that "Indira is not as competent in making decisions and therefore it indirectly controlled by senior management." However, Indira Gandhi, in contrast to the high command, showed extraordinary political skills and elbows to the stalwarts of the Congress in power.

The election of Indira Gandhi increasing differences of opinion among key congressional leaders. The division was apparent as States members did not appear on any subject. To dispel the growth potential of the split, Indira Gandhi, Morarji Desai included in the cabinet. He was appointed deputy prime minister and finance minister in the country. In 1969, Gandhi issued the order to nationalize all banks.

In 1971, to solve the problem of refugees from Bangladesh, who declared war on Pakistan, the Pakistani side of the East, fighting for their independence. The U.S. President Richard Nixon, supporting West Pakistan sent its Seventh Fleet in the Bay of Bengal as a warning to India, keep away from East Pakistan. This move had further alienated India from the First World and more about the USSR. To strengthen national security, in 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test in Pokhran in Rajasthan.

Emergency Declaration
During 1975, the opposition parties joined local groups and NGOs held regular demonstrations in almost all states across the country protesting against rising inflation and rampant corruption in government. The intensity of the protest was increasing day by day. The government did not pacify and contain the movement. At the same time, Allahabad High Court, hearing a petition against Indira Gandhi reported using illegal practices during elections. The Court also ordered him to leave the seat immediately. The decision helped add fuel to political fire in progress. The agitation and anger of the people amplified. Realizing the consequences, Indira Gandhi on June 26, 1975, declared a "state of emergency due to the turbulent political situation in the country."

Now, there is political came into the hands of Indira Gandhi, used tactfully. All of his political opponents were imprisoned, constitutional rights of citizens were repealed, and the press under strict censorship. It was reported that the leaders of the opposition parties were beaten and assaulted in prison.

Taking advantage of the situation, his younger son, Sanjay Gandhi started to run the country as a dictator. He ordered the removal of slums, and in an attempt to curb the growing population of India, initiated a highly resented program of forced sterilization. In 1977, Indira Gandhi called elections. It was reported that the call for elections was taken after she apprehended threat of military coup.

Post-emergency
In the next election, Indira Gandhi, was completely defeated by the Janata Dal, led by Morarji Desai and Jai Prakash Narayan. The Congress managed to win only 153 Lok Sabha seats, compared to the 350 seats they grabbed in the previous Lok Sabha. During the election campaign, Janata Dal leaders urged people to choose between "democracy and dictatorship."

Although the Janata Dal was victorious by a huge margin that could not keep the coalition intact for longer. The allies focused more on self-development. That fight almost the whole issue and all the allies threatened to quit his interest is not served. The internal conflict was evident within months of taking over.

To divert the attention of the people of his failure in the Janata Dal ordered the arrest of Indira Gandhi. However, the strategy crashed spectacularly and won Indira Gandhi, a great sympathy. Indira Gandhi began to give speeches and pointed out the Janata government's misguided policies. In the upcoming elections in January 1980, Congress returned to power with an overwhelming majority. Political experts saw the victory of the Congress as a result of inefficient and ineffective "Janata Dal".

Operation Blue Star and assassination
Two events in the political history of India that tarnished the image of Indira Gandhi was the declaration of emergency in 1975 and launching of Operation Blue Star in Punjab. In September 1981, a Sikh militant group led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale demanded a separate state of Khalistan. They started to motivate people in Punjab and organized several teams to carry out their plans.

In June, entered the premises of the Golden Temple, Amritsar for cover. Indira Gandhi, asked Lieutenant General SK Sinha, then Vice Chief of Indian Army to prepare a position paper for the assault on the Golden Temple. Sinha advised against any such initiative suggests the adoption of an alternative solution. However, Indira Gandhi, clung to his idea and on the night of June 5th the army of India taken by assault on the Golden Temple, led by Major General Kuldip Singh Brar. The security forces had managed to kill Bhindranwale, along with other separatists, but a large number of followers and innocent civilians were killed in the shootout inside the sanctuary.



The act was seen as a tragedy unprecedented in the political history of India. The impact of the attacks increased communal tensions in the country, as many Sikhs resigned from the administrative office armed civilians, and also returned their government awards. On October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi's bodyguards Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, as revenge for the assault on the Golden Temple, the prime minister assassinated in Safdarjung Road residence.



Indira Gandhi Timeline:
1917: Indira Gandhi was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
1936: Her mother died of tuberculosis
1942: Indira Gandhi married Feroze Gandhi.
1944: Rajiv Gandhi was born.
1946: Birth of Sanjay Gandhi.
1960: Feroze Gandhi died.
1966: Indira Gandhi is elected as Prime Minister of India.
1975: Declaration of state of emergency
1975: Sterilization enforced.
1980: Indira Gandhi re-elected as Prime Minister.
1980: Sanjay dies in plane crash.
1984: Golden Temple Massacre.
1984: Indira Gandhi is assassinated.

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